Papers must be double spaced. Use Times New Roman at 12 point size and 1″ margins
(left, right, top, bottom).
On the title page
Author(s) of the Article. (Year of the Article). Title of the article. Title of the Journal,
Volume Number of the Journal, Page Numbers of the Article.
in the lower right hand corner
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Center the heading “Applications” at the top of the page.
In your own words, propose some possible applications of the research. Do not just
restate the information presented in the summary. Make sure that your applications
deal specifically with the use of the results of the research (e.g. provide a couple of
concrete plans for using the results to impact peoples lives), not just the importance of
the research area.
What precise steps will people need to take to use this information to change
their lives? Provide examples of such steps/changes as they would function in
the real world.
In this following space I have here, I provided a sample paper.And what is attached is the article selected for the 4 page paper I need.
Because the research findings suggest that positive self-statements are likely to make
people with low self-esteem feel worse about themselves, these people should not use such statements. As the authors suggest, low self-esteem individuals may benefit from constructing mildly positive self-statements based on their specific traits, abilities, and accomplishments. An example of this would be if a low self-esteem individual were worried about his performance in school. Instead of using a positive self-statement, such as I am smart, he could say I got a good grade on the exam. This specific statement about something that is objectively true would likely work better than the general positive statement because the positive statement can bring up doubts about whether he is smart, his good grade on the exam is something factual and will probably give him a feeling of accomplishment rather than self-doubt.
Based on the findings that people with low self-esteem felt better when they did not have to focus exclusively on positive thoughts, it could be beneficial for them to think about positive statements and engage in self-evaluation. If they can consider how they do or do not fulfill the positive statements, they might come to a more realistic conclusion about themselves than they would if they tried to believe the positive statements and have negative thoughts as a result. For example, if a person with low self-esteem is anxious about a job interview, she might consider how she measures up to a broad, positive statement, such as I am a great worker who is well qualified for this job. If she thinks about how she is qualified and a good worker as well as how
she still has room for improvement, the woman will probably form a more correct idea of her abilities and be more able to accept a positive view of herself than if she just tried to make herself believe an overwhelmingly positive statement about herself.
Although the research shows that positive self-statements have only a small benefit even for people with high self-esteem, they could still be employed during stressful situations to give high self-esteem individuals a small confidence boost. For example, a student with high self esteem who is anxious about final exams could use a positive self-statement such as I am an intelligent person. Because the student has high self-esteem, the positive self-statement would not be harmful, but would make her feel slightly better and more confident when facing the exam.
The authors base their predictions about positive self-statements on previous research
about positive feedback (Eisenstadt & Leippe, 1994) which indicates that individuals will only agree with positive feedback if it confirms what they already believe about themselves.Furthermore, there has been research suggesting that a positive statement which contradicts a persons beliefs about himself could cause that person to reject the statement and there by strengthen his negative convictions (Zanna, 1993). The authors assume that this principle of strengthening negative convictions by contradicting them could also apply to positive self statements. Therefore, the authors predict that making positive self-statements (for example,saying I am an intelligent person) will only make people feel good about themselves if they already have high self-esteem. They assume that people with low self-esteem will feel even worse about themselves after using positive self-statements, so that the people who are meant to benefit the most from such statements may actually be adversely affected by them.
The authors performed three studies to measure the effect of positive self-statements on people with both high and low self-esteem. In the first study, 249 undergraduate students filled out the Rosenberg (1965) self-esteem scale and answered questions about positive selfstatements, such as how often they used such statements. 202 of the students were female and 47 were male. The study measured how often people with high self-esteem use positive selfstatements in comparison to people with low self-esteem. It also sought to find out in what situations people use positive self-statements and how helpful they believe they are.
In the second study, 32 male and 36 female introductory psychology students were randomly assigned to two groups. This was done so that each group would have nearly even numbers of males and females and nearly even numbers of people with low and high self-esteem. High and low self-esteem were determined by scores in the top and bottom thirds of Fleming and Courtneys (1984) self-esteem scale. The experimenter was left blind to the students selfesteem. The members of both groups were instructed to write down their thoughts and feelings for four minutes. The members in one group were also told to repeat the statement I am a loveable person each time they heard a doorbell sound, which occurred every fifteen seconds. After the four-minute period was over, the students completed two measures of their mood and one measure of current self-esteem. The measures of mood that were used were the Association
and Reasoning Scale (Mayer & Hanson, 1995) and Clarks incentive ratings (1983) which
measure an individuals desire to participate in pleasant activities. To measure the students selfesteem at that time, the experimenter asked them to rate their how they felt about themselves based on pairs of opposite descriptors (for example, good/bad, successful/unsuccessful).
For the third and final study, undergraduate students filled out the Rosenberg (1965) SelfEsteem Scale and were given access to an online study, so that they could take part in it at anytime. The students were randomly assigned to two groups: one with a positive focus and one with a neutral focus. They were asked to choose between a positive and a negative selfstatement. Out of those who chose the positive statement, students in the positive-focus group were told to think of ways that it was true. Students in the neutral-focus were instructed to consider ways in which the statement may or may not be true. The study used a self-report measure for mood and McGuire and McGuires (1996) measure for state self-esteem. The students were also asked to rate on a 7-point scale, the statement I am happy with myself/I am unhappy with myself. Finally, the students filled out the same incentive rating that was used in the second study.
The results of the studies fulfilled the authors expectations. The findings of the first
study were that 8% of the students reported using positive self-statements almost daily and that 52% rated their use of positive self-statements at higher than 6 on a 1-8 scale (1being never and 8 being very frequently). The students reported various reasons for using positive self-statements, including in preparation for an exam (85%), to deal with negative events (74%), and as part of everyday life (23%). On average, the students judged the helpfulness of positive self-statements to be 5.36 (on a 1-8 scale). The first study also found the higher students had scored on the selfesteem scale, the higher they rated the helpfulness of positive self-statements.
The second study found that students with high self-esteem scored higher in both mood measures and the self-esteem measure in the group that repeated the positive self-statement as compared to those in the group that did not repeat the statement. This demonstrated that for people with high self-esteem, using a positive self-statement increased their positive feelings. The students with low self-esteem, however, scored lower on all three measures in the positive self-statement group than in the no-statement group. Therefore, people with low self-esteem felt worse when they used a positive self-statement.
The third study found that, in all measures, students with high self-esteem scored higher in the group with positive focus than in the group with neutral focus. The students with low selfesteem scored higher in the neutral-focus group for all measures except for the incentive rating,which measured the students desire to perform enjoyable activities. For the incentive rating,they scored slightly higher in the positive-focus group (6.14 in neutral-focus, 6.27 in positivefocus). The students with high self-esteem still felt better when they focused on the positivity of the statement (they scored 6.03 for the self-esteem measure in the neutral-focus group and 6.30 in the positive-focus group), while the students with low self-esteem mostly felt better when they considered ways in which the statement may or may not be true, rather than only focusing on the positive aspect.