Part 1: Differentiate between validity and reliability using your own words. You can produce a graphic, illustration, or text to post to the discussion board. Comment on at least 2 posts made by your classmates. Part 2: Identify 3 strengths and 3 weaknesses of Q-Methodology, and discuss in your initial post. Respond to the prompt and at least 2 of your peer ATTACHMENT PREVIEW Download attachment Richard: As cited in the literature this week, organizing the steps to this point of your study is crucial in determining where (and how) you go from here. Begin to establish a framework of how the sources you reviewed fit with your purpose in general, and your research questions in particular. Note how and why the reference material you?ve accumulated relates to each chapter of your paper. Whether you?re using database software, spreadsheets, Word tables, or even handwritten note cards, organization of the body of work you?ve assembled is a key factor. Finalizing your research paper requires a synthesis of many elements. Writing up your research project is not a simple process, but you can take steps to lighten your load. Organization is one of those steps. Mertens, D. M. (2010). Chapter 3: Literature review and focusing the research. In Research and evaluation in education and psychology. Integrating diversity with quantitative, qualitative, and mixed methods. (3rd ed.) (pp. 89-121). Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications, Inc Mark: Validity is the idea or concept that a tool or instrument actually measures what it is supposed to measure. For example, a scale is used to measure someone?s weight. Hence, a scale is a valid instrument to measure weight. However, the same scale is not a valid instrument to measure someone?s height. Further, in research there are tools and surveys that measure certain concepts relating to human beings. In my research project, which is about situation awareness, there is a tool called SAGAT that is a valid measure for situation awareness and has been used in multiple studies to measure situation awareness. If one were to use the SAGAT tool to measure depression in subjects, it would be an invalid instrument because it is not designed to measure depression. Reliability is the ability for the instrument or tool to repeat consistently the measure it is taken; hence it has repeatability. Continuing with the above example, if a person were to get on a scale five different times in 7 minutes and his readings were as follows, 150, 161, 145, 133, and 141, we would say that the scale has no reliability. Yet it has validity because a scale is a well-known instrument for measuring weight. If this scale were properly calibrated and the same experiment was performed with five measurements in 7 minutes and the data were: 150, 151, 149, 151, and 150, then the reliability would be good. When using Q methodology, there are strengths and weaknesses with the technique. One of the strengths is that it combines the strengths of both qualitative and quantitative research methods when addressing a phenomenon and the views of the phenomenon are directly from the subjects. Another strength of this method is that the participants are given more power and they decide personally what is the most important aspects of a given phenomenon. The participants more or less through their Q sorts drive the input and the researcher has much less input value. Finally, utilizing this method allows for researchers and those reviewing the study View the Answer to have direct access into the feelings, attitudes and perceptions of the subjects which can be very insightful when trying to understand how a phenomenon impacts subjects. It can help to generate theory and new ideas versus trying to test a hypothesis. There are some weaknesses to the Q methodology as well. First, when the researcher is developing the concourse through interviews with people who are involved in the subject to be studied, this process can be very long and tedious. In order to have a complete understanding of a subject all avenues of the phenomenon should be investigated and installed into the concourse. If the researcher in this phase is not thorough and all encompassing, some of the items for the Q sort may not be included. Second, there was been some concern with the subjects during the Q sort stage that there is a ?forced choice? required when placing items into the matrix. This could inhibit or alter the subject?s placement of the statements in places where they may actually want to place them. Finally, another weakness of the Q methodology is that there could be researcher bias in the selection and formation of statements that will be used in the Q sort. While the researcher is getting his initial statements and ideas or concepts from interviews, his interpretation of these could bias the statements presented to the subjects for the Q sort. References Karim, K. (2001). Q methodology- Advantages and the disadvantages of this research method. Journal of Community Nursing, 15(4), 8-12. Simons, J. (2013). An introduction to Q methodology. Nurse Researcher, 20(3), 28-32. Trochim, W. M. (2006). Research methods knowledge base. Web Center for Social Research Methods. Retrieved from http://www.socialresearchmethods.net/kb/survey.php William?s comment to mark: Mark, very clearly written and explained post. I like your usage of the scale, very practical example. You spoke of researcher bias, do you feel that can go hand in hand with participant selection process to gather participants that are like minded or either not as informed in the area of research to allow for an even great array of bias? Donna?s comment to mark: Hi Mark, Show entire document Running Head: RELIABILITY AND VALIDITY Reliability and Validity Student?s Name Institution of Affiliation 1 RELIABILITY AND VALIDITY 2 Validity and reliability seem to have similar meaning butâ€¦ The best way to approach your questionâ€¦ View the full answer Â Share this:TwitterFacebook
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