Mythology were stories which were used to explain the existence of reality as it is. It
was more of an idea as nobody could be able to see, touch or witness this events to prove this
as the truth. It was based on the nomos and human belief. Pre-Socratis on the other hand were
the early philosophers who used ethical philosophy to explain phenomenon, they were
rational and their reality was more on physis where they tried to use natural evidence to base
their theories and methods. This made them reject most mythological beliefs as there were no
queries but blind belief.
Sophists were professional teachers and people of intellect who would teach people
on public speaking and other literal arts. The sophist’s teachings worked on language and
ways and means of putting across an idea. Therefore it used nomos understanding, the
sophist’s were viewed as power hungry and greedy as they only shared their knowledge in
exchange for money this increased and encouraged humans to view each other as either
strong or weak where there is no equality and the strong rule over the weak. Socrates was
also an intelligent teacher and could be viewed as a sophist but Socrates did not have any
charges for what he taught. Socrates also did not teach people on how to portray their ideas
and opinions as the sophist’s did with public speaking. Socrates teachings were based on
physis teachings where all human beings are equal, while the sophists preached political
power, vanity and wealth. This made moral definition to be viewed as the strong proposed
and led to more injustice and immorality as those who did not accept their teachings were
The theory of forms was developed by Plato to prove that there is a reality of
unchanging properties that is not affected by space and time and are complete by themselves.
Plato believed that forms were individual and pure and did not consist of other qualities. The
forms were not confined to space and time and therefore exist anywhere in the world at any
time. The intelligible knowledge as described by Plato consisted of philosophical
understanding and practical evidence to explain everything, once this is achieved then one
would have true understanding. This involved developing and supporting theories from
objects to provide better information than mere opinions. The intelligible world people
understood by judgment from their knowledge to describe why anything exists. Sensible
belief is the use of common sense, derive judgment from the senses. It may not be absolutely
true as things are always changing but one can associate with it to understand what reality is.
Sensible belief relies on art, music, opinions and stories. Aristotle described substance into
categories and metaphysics where categories are divided into primary substance, individual
objects that would be described by everything else or secondary sources which show features
of the primary sources. Form describes a deeper classification of being in a higher reality
beyond space and time while substance describes the material object and its properties.
Metaphysics describes the notion of four causes, formal, efficient, material and final.
Formal cause is described as what makes things to be as they are for instance a car is made up
of pieces of metal but not referred to as many pieces of metal this makes it be a formal cause.
It is further classified to exemplary cause or the idea to create the cause. Efficient cause
describes what led to something for instance when a rock breaks a window the rock is the
efficient cause for the window breaking. Material cause is what comprises the cause its
constituent properties like a computer consists of integrated circuits, capacitors and electronic
components. Final cause answers why a cause occurred as it did. This further explains
efficient cause as it questions the existence of things to help explain and understand them.
This information helps us understand our reality and the world.
Plato’s approach on morality was to strive toward self-fulfillment through wisdom,
courage, justice and integrity. Aristotle also believed in morality through a virtue of working
towards happiness and personal well-being with integrity. Plato believed virtue to require
action by acting out your beliefs like Socrates who taught Plato did not let go of his integrity
for the sophist’s. Aristotle believed in nature to explain his theory thus conforming to physis
as he developed many methods used to date on science and Aristotelian culture. Plato used art
and rhetoric to describe his theory, this shows he used nomos teachings as he based his theory
on a reality greater than human understanding and beyond time and space. Platonic good is
described as only possible through justice, integrity and self-satisfaction while Aristotle’s end
was that of happiness through personal well-being and individual excellence.