Case Study Assignment: MKT 3323 Buyer Behavior (330 points)
Case for Analysis:
PORSCHE: GUARDING THE OLD WHILE BRINGING IN THE NEW
Porsche is a unique company. It has always been a niche brand that makes cars for a small and distinctive segment of automobile buyers. In 2009, Porsche sold only 27,717 cars in the five models it sells in the United States. Honda sold about 10 times that many Accords alone. But, Porsche owners are as rare as their vehicles. For that reason, top managers at Porsche spend a great deal of time thinking about customers. They want to know who their customers are, what they think, and how they feel. They want to know why they buy a Porsche rather than a Jaguar, a Ferrari, or a big Mercedes coups. These are challenging questions to answer; even Porsche owners themselves dont know exactly what motivates their buying. But given Porsches low volume and the increasingly fragmented auto market, it is imperative that management understands its customers and what gets their motors running.
THE PROFILE OF A PORSCHE OWNER
Porsche was founded in 1931 by Ferdinand Porsche, the man credited for designing the original Volkswagen BeetleAdolf Hitlers peoples car and one of the most successful car designs of all time. For most of its first two decades, the company built Volkswagen Beetles for German citizens and tanks and Beetles for the military. As Porsche AG began to sell cars under its own nameplate in the 1950s and 1060s, a few constants developed. The company sold very few models, creating an image of exclusivity. Those models had a rounded, bubble shape that had its roots in the original Beetle but evolved into something more Porsche-like with the world famous 356 and 911 models. Finally, Porsches automobiles featured air-cooled four- and six-cylinder boxer motors (cylinders in an opposed configuration) in the rear of the car. This gave the cars a unique and often dangerous characteristica tendency for the rear end to swing out when cornering hard. Thats one of the reasons that Porsche owners were drawn to them. They were challenging to drive, which kept most people away.
Since its early days, Porsche has appealed to a very narrow segment of financially successful people. These are achievers who see themselves as entrepreneurial, even if they work for a corporation. They set very high goals for themselves and then work doggedly to meet them. And they expect no less from the clothes they wear, the restaurants they go to or the cars they drive. These individuals see themselves not as part of the regular world but as exceptions to it. They buy Porsches because the car mirrors their self-image; it stands for the things owners like to see in themselves and their lives.
Most of us buy what Porsche executives call utility vehicles. That is, we buy cars primarily to go to work, transport children, and run errands. Because we use our cars to accomplish these daily tasks, we base buying decisions on features such as price, size, fuel economy, and other practical considerations. But Porsche is more than a utility car. Its owners see it as a car to be enjoyed, not just used. Most Porsche buyers are not moved by information buy by feelings. A Porsche is like a piece of clothingsomething the owner wears and is seen in. They develop a personal relationship with their cars, one that has more to do with the way the car sounds, vibrates, and feels, rather than the how many cup holders it has or how much cargo it can hold in the trunk. They admire their Porsche because it is a competent performance machine without being flashy or phony.
People buy Porsches because they enjoy driving. If all they needed was something to get them from point A to point B, they could find something much less expensive. And while many Porsche owners are car enthusiasts, some of them are not. One successful businesswoman and owner of a high-end Porsche said When I drive this car to the high school to pick up my daughter, I end up with five youngsters in the car. If I drive any other car, I cant even find her; she doesnt want to come home.
FROM NICHE TO NUMEROUS
For its first few decades, Porsche AG lived by the philosophy of Ferry Porsche, Ferdinands son. Ferry created the Porsche 356 because no one else made a car like what he wanted. We did no market research, we had no sales forecasts, no return-on-investment calculations. None of that. I simply built my dream car and figured that there would be other people who share that dream. So, really, Porsche AG from the beginning was very much like its customers: an achiever that set out to make the very best.
But as the years rolled on, Porsche management became concerned with a significant issue: Were there enough Porsche buyers to keep the company afloat? Granted, the company never had illusions of churning out the numbers of a Chevrolet or a Toyota. But to fund innovation, even a niche manufacturer has to grow a little. And Porsche began to worry that the quirky nature of the people who buy Porsches might just run out on them.
This led Porsche to extend its brand outside the box. In the early 1970s, Porsche introduced the 914, a square-ish, mid-engine, two-seater that was much cheaper than the 911. This meant that a different class of people could afford a Porsche. It was no surprise that the 914 with became Porsches top selling model. By the late 1070s, Porsche replaced the 914 with a hatchback coupe that had something no regular Porsche model ever had; an engine in the front. At less than $20,000, more than $10,000 less than the 911, the 924 and later 944 models were once again Porsches pitch to affordability. At one point, Porsche increased it sales goal by nearly 50 percent to 60,000 cars a year.
Although these cars were in many respects sales successes, the Porsche faithful cried foul. They considered these entry level models to be cheap and underperforming. Most loyalists never really accepted these models as real Porsches. In fact, they were not at all happy that they had to share their brand with a customer who didnt fit the Porsche owner profile. They were turned off by what they saw as a corporate strategy that had focused on mass over class marketing. This tarnished image was compounded by the fact that Nissan, Toyota, BMW, and other car manufacturers had ramped up high-end sports car offerings, creating some fierce competition. In fact, both the Datsun 280-ZX and the Toyota Supra were not only cheaper than Porsches 944 but also faster. A struggling economy served to slow Porsches sales and by 1990, Porsche sales had plummeted and the company flirted with bankruptcy.
RETURN TO ITS ROOTS?
But Porsche wasnt going down without a fight. It quickly recognized the error of its ways and halted production of the entry-level models. It rebuilt its damaged image by revamping its higher-end rapport with customers, Porsche once again targeted the high end of the market in both price and performance. It set modest sales goals and decided that moderate growth with higher margins would be more profitable in the long term. Thus, the company set out to make one less Porsche than the public demanded. According to one executive, Were not looking for volume; were searching for exclusivity.
Porsches efforts had the desired effect. By the late 1990s, the brand was once again favored by the same type of achiever who had so deeply loved the car for decades. The cars were once again exclusive. And the company was once again profitable. But by the early 2000s, Porsche management was again asking itself a familiar question: To have a sustainable future, could Porsche rely on only Porsche faithful? According to then CEO Wendelin Wiedeking, For Porsche to remain independent, it cant be dependent on the most fickle segment in the market. We dont want to become just a marketing department of some giant. We have to make sure were profitable enough to pay for future development ourselves.
So in 2002, Porsche did the unthinkable. It became one of the last car companies to jump into the insatiable sport utility vehicle (SUV) market. At roughly 5,000 pounds, the new Porsche Cayenne was heavier than anything that Porsche had ever made, with the exception of some prototype tanks it made during WWII. Once again, the new model featured an engine up front. And it was the first Porsche to ever be equipped with seatbelts for five. As news spread about the cars development, howls could be heard from Porsches customer base.
But this time, Porsche did not seem too concerned that the loyalists would be put off. Could it be that the company had already forgotten what happened the last time it deviated from the mold? After driving one of the first Cayennes off the assembly line, one journalist stated, A day at the wheel of the 444 horsepower Cayenne Turbo leaves two overwhelming impressions. First, the Cayenne doesnt behave or feel like an SUV, and second, it drives like a Porsche. This was no entry-level car. Porsche had created a two-and-a-half ton beast that could accelerate to 60 miles per hour in just over five seconds, corner like it was on rails, and hit 165 miles per hour, all while coddling five adults in sumptuous leather seats with almost no wind noise from the outside world. On top of that, it could keep up with a Land Rover when the pavement ended. Indeed, Porsche had created the Porsche-of SUVs.
Last year, Porsche upped the ante one more time. It unveiled another large vehicle. But this time, it was a low-slung, fin-door luxury sedan. The Porsche faithful and the automotive press again gasped in disbelief. But by the time the Panamera hit the pavement, Porsche had proven once again that Porsche customer could have their cake and eat it to. The Panamera is almost as big as the Cayenne but can move four adults down the road at speeds of up to 188 miles per hour and accelerate from a standstill to 60 miles per hour in four seconds flat.
Although some Porsche traditionalists would never be caught dead driving a front engine Porsche that has more than two doors, Porsche insists that two trends will sustain these new models. First, a category of Porsche buyers has moved into life stages that have them facing inescapable needs; they need to haul more people and stuff. This not only applies to certain Porsche buyers, but Porsche is again seeing buyers enter its dealerships that otherwise wouldnt have. Only this time the price points of the new vehicles are drawing only the well-heeled, allowing Porsche to maintain its exclusivity. These buyers also seem to fit the achiever profile of regular Porsche buyers.
The second trend is the growth of emerging economies. Whereas the United States has long been the worlds biggest consumer of Porsches, the company expects China to become its biggest customer before long. Twenty years ago, the United States accounted for about 50 percent of Porsches worldwide sales. Now, it accounts for only about 26 percent. In china, many people who can afford to buy a car as expensive as a Porsche also hire a chauffeur. The Cayenne and the Panamera are perfect for those who want to be driven around in style but who may also want to make a quick getaway if necessary.
The most recent economic downturn has brought down the sales of just about every maker of premium automobiles. When times are tough, buying a car like a Porsche is the ultimate deferrable purchase. But as this downturn turns back up, Porsche is better poised than it has ever been to meet the needs of its customer base. It is also in better shape than ever to maintain its brand image with the Porsche faithful and with others as well. Sure, understand Porsche buyers is still a difficult task. But a former CEO of Porsche summed it up this way: If you really want to understand our customers, you have to understand the phrase, If I were going to be a car, Id be a Porsche.
Assignment: Answer the following questions regarding the case above. You should take about 1 to 2 pages to answer EACH question thoroughly. The maximum length of each paper should be six pages double spaced, with 1 inch margins and 12 point Times New Roman font.
Your grade will be based on the following criteria:
1) Your ability to summarize and effectively apply the necessary concepts to the case study.
2) Your ability to take information you have learned from class and the text in order to completely and clearly answer the case questions.
a. This means that you should be specifically referencing the text book using formal citations (APA format preferred).
b. Use quotation marks when taking text verbatim from the book.
c. Include in-text citations with page numbers when you reference a definition or specific fact.
3) Your ability to write clearly and concisely with no major grammatical or punctuation errors.
1) Compare and contrast the consumer decision process of a traditional Porsche customer to the consumer decision process of a Cayenne or a Panamera customer. Be sure to discuss all five stages for both types of customers. (Assessing the Consumer Decision Process pp. 460 to 643, textbook.) 125 points.
2) Identify and analyze 2 or more external influences that helped shape Porsches marketing strategies. (Assessing External Influences pp. 34 to 255, textbook.) 75 points.
3) Attitude is a particularly relevant internal influence with which Porsche must deal. Explain how both positive and negative attitudes toward a brand like Porsche develop. How might Porsche change consumer attitudes toward the brand? (Assessing attitude components, influence and change strategies, pp. 383 to 413, textbook.) 75 points.
4) Self-concept is also a particularly relevant internal influence. Define self-concept and analyze how Porsche uses self-concept to position its products. 55 points.
CASE STUDY ASSIGNMENTS ARE DUE VIA CHALK & WIRE MAY 3rd by 11:59 PM.