University of Phoenix MaterialÂ Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Week Three Quiz Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Complete the following quiz. Choose your response by highlighting your answer. Â 1.Â Â Â Â When we perform an experiment, we a.Â Â Â Â measure independent variables, b.Â Â Â produce dependent variables. c.Â Â Â Â produce control variables. d.Â Â Â produce a comparison. e.Â Â Â Â hold independent variables constant. Â 2.Â Â Â Â The control group in an experiment a.Â Â Â Â fixes the level of a variable across all experimental conditions. b.Â Â Â is often untreated. c.Â Â Â Â receives the same level of the independent variable as the experimental group. d.Â Â Â refers to the manipulation of the independent variable. Â 3.Â Â Â Â In research on the decompression of pregnant rats, the independent variable is ______, a dependent variable is ________, and a control variable is _______________. a.Â Â Â Â Reduced air pressure; behavioral tests; strain of the rat b.Â Â Â Body weight; climbing ability; time of day c.Â Â Â Â Atmospheric pressure; age of rat; climbing ability d.Â Â Â Number of decompressions; body weight; home cage e.Â Â Â Â Experimental group; control group; test performance Â 4.Â Â Â Â In experiments, independent variables are a.Â Â Â Â the result of careful measurements. b.Â Â Â extraneous to the experiment and held constant. c.Â Â Â Â extraneous to the experiment and allowed to vary randomly. d.Â Â Â independent of experimenter control. e.Â Â Â Â varied by the researcher. Â 5.Â Â Â Â Dependent variables are a.Â Â Â Â manipulated by the researcher. b.Â Â Â potential independent variables that are held constant. c.Â Â Â Â measured by the researcher. d.Â Â Â probable behavioral causes. Â 6.Â Â Â Â One reason a valid experiment may produce null results is a.Â Â Â Â the range of levels in the independent variable was insufficient to show an effect. b.Â Â Â the dependent variable reflects a broad range of performance. c.Â Â Â Â that the experiment is conducted in an environment that is too difficult. d.Â Â Â that reactivity occurs in the participants (e.g., they adopt the role of â€œgood behaviorâ€). Â Â 7.Â Â Â Â In experiments, the independent variable should be _________, the dependent variable should be __________, and the control variable should be ________. a.Â Â Â Â controlled; constant; randomized b.Â Â Â constant; an effect; causal c.Â Â Â Â free; restricted; elevated d.Â Â Â balanced; unconfounded; an effect e.Â Â Â Â manipulated; measured; held constant Â 8.Â Â Â Â An interaction occurs when a.Â Â Â Â an independent variable effects a dependent variable. b.Â Â Â one independent variable effects a second independent variable. c.Â Â Â Â the effect one dependent variable has is not the same at each level of a second dependent variable. d.Â Â Â the effect one independent variable has is not the same at each level of a second independent variable. Â 9.Â Â Â Â Which of the following is an example of the Hawthorne effect? a.Â Â Â Â Experimenter bias b.Â Â Â Reactivity in an experiment c.Â Â Â Â Participant observation d.Â Â Â Unobtrusive outcomes Â 10.Â A variable that inadvertently causes an experimental result is a.Â Â Â Â confounded with the dependent variable. b.Â Â Â confounded with the independent variable. c.Â Â Â Â confounded with the control variables. d.Â Â Â unlikely to be important in experiments. Â 11.Â Construct validity permits one to do which of the following? a.Â Â Â Â Generalize b.Â Â Â Attribute causality c.Â Â Â Â Have confidence in constructs d.Â Â Â Support hypothesis Â 12.Â Which of the following is a source of construct invalidity? a.Â Â Â Â Bias b.Â Â Â Random error c.Â Â Â Â Carry-over effects d.Â Â Â Counterbalancing Â 13.Â If a study has external validity, one is entitled to a.Â Â Â Â generalize. b.Â Â Â attribute causality. c.Â Â Â Â have confidence in constructs. d.Â Â Â support hypotheses. Â Â Â Â 14.Â Internal validity allows one to do which of the following? a.Â Â Â Â Generalize b.Â Â Â Attribute causality c.Â Â Â Â Have confidence in constructs d.Â Â Â Support hypotheses Â 15.Â Which of the following is the most likely to have the greatest internal validity? a.Â Â Â Â Surveys b.Â Â Â Case studies c.Â Â Â Â Relational research d.Â Â Â Experiments Â 16.Â Test reliability determined by a correlation between scores from the same test taken at two different times is called a.Â Â Â Â test-retest reliability. b.Â Â Â parallel forms reliability. c.Â Â Â Â split-half reliability. d.Â Â Â predictive reliability. Â 17.Â Statistical reliability determines whether results a.Â Â Â Â will occur five percent of the time. b.Â Â Â occur because of chance. c.Â Â Â Â are internally valid. d.Â Â Â are produced by bias. Â 18.Â Which of the following is a major threat to internal validity? a.Â Â Â Â Confounding b.Â Â Â Deviant-case analysis c.Â Â Â Â Truncated range d.Â Â Â Dependent variables Â 19.Â A type of validity that is specifically concerned with being able to make causal statements about relationships between variables is _______________ validity. a.Â Â Â Â External b.Â Â Â Internal c.Â Â Â Â Construct d.Â Â Â Predictive Â 20.Â A replication of research helps to determine ______________ validity. a.Â Â Â Â Construct b.Â Â Â External c.Â Â Â Â Internal d.Â Â Â Predictive
Bonus Points Assignment Psychology
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